Utah Thyroid Specialists
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Diagnoised with Thyroid Cancer? Contact Our Experienced Physicians for the Best Possible Care

Comprehensive Thyroid Cancer Care

A cancer diagnosis can be devastating even if it does not end up causing severe sickness or death. There is no such thing as a “good type of cancer”.

Our doctors at the Thyroid Institute of Utah are thyroid cancer experts and are determined to achieve Freedom from Thyroid Cancer for all of our patients. Not only free from cancer in the body, but also free from the anxiety caused by being a thyroid cancer survivor.

How we care for you:

  • Our doctors have developed tremendous experience and expertise in thyroid cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our endocrinologists have performed more than 5,000 thyroid biopsies, and our surgeons have performed thousands of thyroid surgeries.
  • We personalize the care to YOU, and do not use a one size fit all system. Recent advances in medicine and genetics allow as to treat YOUR thyroid cancer specifically, and not thyroid cancer in general. Due to the wealth and constant expansion of our knowledge, only doctors specialized in thyroid cancer and thyroid diseases are able to utilize the appropriate tools to provide you with the best outcomes.
  • We have a team of experts from different specialties caring for you.
  • You can rest assured that the surveillance of your thyroid cancer will be performed by a thyroid cancer expert endocrinologist, who is also an expert ultrasonographer. Thus, big malignant neck metastases and recurrence (cancer coming back) will not be missed and will be treated promptly. For reasons discussed in the comprehensive thyroid nodule care section, the quality of ultrasound is much lower if done by most radiology departments.
  • We are able to offer the latest treatment that fits your needs, and are also able to recommend to avoid treatment when it is not necessary. This is particularly important in our day and age, as overwhelming evidence is pushing towards less surgery, less radioactive iodine, and more active surveillance. You need an expert to know when you need treatment, but also when you should not get treatment.
  • The vast majority of our patients get better, and are able to lead a normal and joyful life.

See below for more details about the Comprehensive Thyroid Cancer Care at the Thyroid Institute of Utah

What are the symptoms of Thyroid Cancer?

Most people with thyroid cancer will not notice any symptoms, until the cancer is very big. The most common noticeable finding is a lump in the thyroid (thyroid nodule), that is felt by you or your doctor (sometimes it can be seen in the mirror).

When you have a thyroid nodule, symptoms that raise high suspicion for thyroid cancer include:

  • Hoarseness/Voice change
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Breathing problems (especially when lying flat)
  • Persistent pain in the lower part of the front of the neck
  • Persistent unexplained cough

If you feel a lump in your neck, please see a thyroid specialist as soon as possible, especially if you also have at least one of these symptoms.

Types of Thyroid Cancer

There are many types of thyroid cancer. Some of them are more aggressive than others.

  • Papillary Thyroid Cancer. This is by far the most common type, and has many variants. It is usually (but not always) slow growing and curable.
  • Follicular Thyroid Cancer. This is seen in much fewer people. It tends to be a little more aggressive than papillary thyroid cancer, but is is also usually slow growing and treatable.
  • Hurthle Cell Carcinoma. This is rare, and can be harder to treat if not caught early.
  • Medullary Thyroid Cancer. This is a unique type of thyroid cancer, as it comes from neuroendocrine cells that do not produce thyroid hormone. Many times, we see this cancer as part of genetic syndromes. It is less frequently curable, but usually treatable, if treated by a thyroid cancer specialist.
  • Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. This usually develops from a papillary or follicular thyroid cancer, and is extremely aggressive. It can lead to death in weeks to months, but recent advances have decreased the number of people dying from this. This diagnosis is an emergency, and treatment should not be delayed even for 1 day.

There is no such thing as a “good type of cancer”. If you are diagnosed with any of these types of thyroid cancer, or you are at high risk for thyroid cancer, it is imperative that you see a thyroid cancer specialist to receive appropriate care. We will work with you to identify the best treatment strategy.

Am I at risk for thyroid cancer? Should I get thyroid cancer screening? Each type of thyroid cancer has its own risk factors.

Risk factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  • Family history of papillary thyroid cancer, especially if more than 1 family member has been affected.
  • Radiation exposure (radiation treatments at or close to the neck, exposure to nuclear fallout), especially during childhood
  • Specific genetic syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, etc
  • Gender (more common in women, but usually more aggressive in men)

Risk factors for Follicular and Hurthle Cell Thyroid Cancer

  • Iodine deficiency, especially while growing up
  • Specific genetic syndromes, such as Cowden’s syndrome, etc

Risk factors for Medullary Thyroid Cancer

  • Family history of Medullary Thyroid Cancer, or a genetic syndrome called MEN2 (a or b), due to an inherited mutation in a gene called RET

If you have any of the above risk factors, you are at higher risk for thyroid cancer. The Thyroid Institute of Utah can help you diagnose and find the best treatment strategy.

Diagnosis of Thyroid cancer

The diagnosis is made with Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Biopsy. Please see our “Comprehensive Thyroid Nodule Care” (link) section for further details about thyroid cancer diagnosis.

Thyroid Cancer Treatment

At the Thyroid Institute of Utah, we individualize thyroid cancer treatment to your needs. We review the characteristics of the tumor, we take into account if the tumor has spread and at which locations, your overall health and preferences, and, when needed, we evaluate the genetic makeup of the tumor. We then provide you with treatment options based on those.

Active Surveillance

This is recommended for very small thyroid cancers, which are less than 1 cm in size. It is well known that 98-99% of these tumors will not get bigger or spread, so surgery is not needed.

More recent evidence has shown that surveillance may be an option for larger tumors, up to 2 cm. However, more research is needed before this can be incorporated into practice, and we would only recommend this in select cases.


The first line treatment for thyroid cancer is thyroidectomy (surgery to remove the thyroid). Recent data has shown that it is better to remove the whole thyroid (total thyroidectomy) for larger cancers, but it is ok to remove half the thyroid (hemithyroidectomy) for smaller non-aggressive cancers without evidence of lymph node spread on ultrasound. Lymph nodes have to be removed from the neck if they are suspicious for metastases. The decision making process is complex, and it is best made in association with a thyroid cancer specialist who performs and is experienced in in-office ultrasound, and with an experienced thyroid surgeon.

Radioactive Lodine

Radioactive iodine (RAI) is a very important and useful treatment option for patients with, or at high risk of recurrence. However, recent data indicate that less patient’s need radioactive iodine treatment, and increase expertise is required to identify which patient truly needs RAI, and what dose. Read our article about Radioactive Iodine for more information.

Call (801) 396-0594 to talk to our medical staff about your thyroid problem.

Advanced Thyroid Cancer Treatment

Most people with thyroid cancer do very well after surgery +/- radioactive iodine. However, so patients have a recurrence (tumor comes back) after treatment. When there is recurrence, most tumors are slow growing, and some don’t grow at all. Unfortunately, some of these tumors grow faster as the cancer gets more advanced.

Treatments for advanced thyroid cancer include:

  • Repeat surgery, if there is a good chance the tumor can be removed and cure the patient
  • High dose radioactive iodine
  • External beam radiation therapy. This is different than radioactive iodine, and is recommended if the cancer is only in one place, and it does not get better with surgery or radioactive iodine treatment
  • Targeted systemic therapy. In the past there was no good medicine for thyroid cancer. However, there are now new medications that have been shown to be very effective in controlling the thyroid cancer, and keeping it at bay at least for a significant period of it.
  • Chemoradiation. This is not very effective for regular thyroid cancer, but it may be lifesaving for anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • Bone medication. These are osteoporosis medications at higher doses, and can help prevent fractures, and treat thyroid cancer, if it has spread to the bones.

At the Thyroid Institute of Utah, our specialists care for many patients with Advanced Thyroid Cancer. Here, you can benefit from a team of doctors who can offer all of the above treatments. You can also rest assured that we can help you decide if you need treatment now, or if it is better to delay treatment for a later time.

Long Term Follow up of Thyroid Cancer

After you have completed treatment for thyroid cancer, we perform surveillance to make sure it does not come back. The frequency of the monitoring and extent of the tests relies on the following factors:

  • Thyroid Cancer Risk Stratification
    • Low-Risk Thyroid Cancer: These are typically small cancers that have not spread outside the thyroid
    • High-Risk Thyroid Cancer: These are typically cancers that have spread beyond the thyroid, or cancers that grow fast
  • Response to Therapy
    • Excellent response: An excellent response is when there is no evidence of thyroid cancer during follow up (negative blood tests, ultrasounds, and scans)
    • Incomplete response: An incomplete response is when there is evidence of thyroid cancer during follow up
      • Biochemical incomplete response: Blood test is positive, but imaging is negative
      • Structural incomplete response: Imaging is positive for thyroid cancer

No matter what is the Thyroid Cancer Risk, or the Response to Therapy, our doctors will offer treatment options and a monitoring plan.

Servicing Provo

Jules Aljammal, MD

Servicing Lehi and Salt Lake City

Konstantinos Segkos, MD

Servicing Provo

To discuss your case with our doctors, contact the Thyroid Institute of Utah.

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The Skilled & Compassionate Care You Need

Why The Thyroid Institute of Utah is the Clear Choice for Your Treatment
  • Experienced endocrinologists

  • Skilled thyroid surgeons

  • Thousands of biopsies performed

  • Specialize in minimally invasive surgery

Real Patients. Real Results.

Read How We've Helped Patients Just Like You Overcome Thyroid Disorders
  • “Nobody else seemed as educated about possible treatments for my thyroid nodule.”

    Former Patient

  • “Thank you for taking such good care of me.”


  • “I am grateful I found the Thyroid Institute!”

    Former Patient

  • “I can whole-heartedly recommend Dr. Aljammal”


  • “He took the time to explain my condition in a way I could understand.”

    Mary Lou

  • “I've already recommended it to numerous people.”

    Former Patient

  • “It is so nice to be working with someone that knows his ...”


  • “Dr. Riddle truly cares about his patients. With him I found hope that I would overcome my illness.”


  • “Throughout the process they treated me like family, and I felt that my health was in the best hands possible.”


  • “Very professional”

    Former Patient

  • “Dr. Aljammal is a superhero”

    Former Client

  • “Dr. Beus showed great concern by checking up on me.”


  • “I have nothing but good things to say”

    Former Patient

  • “ I have to say that I'm impressed with his constant effort to stay current on the most modern and effective treatments.”

    Previous Patient

  • “Absolutely amazing. I'm so impressed!”

    Jennifer Smith